Carbon Capture FORUM


As a research community network organization, the CCCA - Climate Change Centre Austria - is committed to positioning the topic of CCU and CCS as a key research focus and, together with the IIÖ (Institute for Industrial Ecology) and BioBASE, invites the CCU/CCS community to network more closely with each other through joint workshops and stakeholder involvement and to present activities outside this research community.

Review of the 7th Carbon Capture FORUM "Conflicting objectives" from 15.12.2023

After the annual review of the activities of the Carbon Capture FORUM in 2023, which is a community effort between the CCCA and the IIÖ or BioBASE GmbH, the study results from CO2FOKUS on social and societal acceptance were presented by Adriana DIAZ (ECODESIGN).

Christopher LAMPORT (Head of Department "General Climate Policy" at the BMK) explained the political conflicts of objectives in the context of CCU and CCS as well as the Carbon Management Strategy at the meta-level. The ecological aspects (on behalf of Helmut HABERL) were then introduced with reference to BECCS, before Katharina BENEDETTER explained the communication and individual aspects in more detail.

An invitation to participate in an ongoing project on carbon management in Styria was also extended and the project outlined. For further questions, please contact Raphaela MAIER. 

In conclusion, it was noted that all technologies, including CCU and CCS, require early integration of all target dimensions in order to identify and resolve potential conflicts at an early stage. This includes potential conflicts within a target dimension (e.g. climate protection vs. biodiversity) as well as across dimensions (e.g. ecology vs. economy).

After the discussion round, a survey was conducted on the desired topics in 2024.

We present FR, March 15, 2024 as the date for the event.

"CCU and CCS as essential components of a carbon management strategy", on September 15, 2023, 9:00-11:00 a.m., ONLINE

After the five workshops of the Carbon Capture FORUM on the topics "CCS Roundtable", "Community Building", "CCU and CCS in Climate Accounting", "Potentials of Nature Based Solutions for Long-Term Carbon Storage" and "CCU | CCS - Infrastructure and Legal Framework", we would like to invite you to our next event "CCU and CCS as Essential Components of a Carbon Management Strategy" on September 15, 2023 between 9:00-11:00 a.m. ONLINE.

On the one hand, the role of CCU and CCS in a carbon management strategy will be discussed and essential elements of such a strategy will be discussed. Experts will provide short impulse contributions and then discuss further dimensions in a discussion.

Please register here to receive the access data. You will receive the agenda for the workshop a good week before the event.

9:00-9:10 Bernhard Windsperger | Opening and introduction to the topic

  • Alina BRAD | Management Strategies and Policy Level |University of Vienna
  • Wolfgang BRENNER | Limits of implementation |WKÖ
  • Berit ERLACH | Experiences from Germany | acatech
  • Jose DELGADO | National and international legal environment | Federal Ministry of Finance (BMF)

10:10-10:50 Discussion

10:50-11:00 Summary and outlook


Subject to change | preliminary program

On June 15, 2023, the 5th Carbon Capture FORUM with the title "CCU/CCS - Infrastructure and Legal Framework" took place in Vienna.


Download the presentation here!

We would like to thank you for the intensive, exciting and constructive discussion. Here is a short summary, which of course can only show a small excerpt of all the comments made:

There are quite a few open questions about the legal framework for CCU and CCS, especially with regard to other regulations, ordinances, rules (e.g. regulations on the safe storage of hazardous substances). The ministries also called for the requirements of industry and business for safety in planning. Whether the CCS ban will be lifted in Austria will be decided in the course of the year. The framework must then also be created to enable the required predictability. The expected report by the Federal Ministry of Finance will initially make recommendations that will subsequently have to be adapted in the various laws. The currently planned CCU regulations are not yet clearly formulated, especially with regard to the mandatory storage period in products. It is also still unclear what the possible crediting of CO2 recycling will look like. However, the ETS looks as if only permanently sequestered CO2 will be counted in the ETS system, which would mean that a significant incentive for the industry to use CO2 as a substitute for fossil raw materials would be lost in key areas of the petrochemical industry. In addition, the safety standards must also be clearly defined in order to prevent possible CO2 leaks from the storage sites. The current situation regarding bilateral contract design can be supported by expertise from the ministry.


The CCCA - Climate Change Centre Austria - as a research community network organization sees itself committed to position the topic of CCU and CCS as an essential research focus and invites together with the IIÖ (Institute for Industrial Ecology) and BioBASE to connect the CCU/CCS community more strongly with each other through joint workshops and stakeholder involvement and to present the activities also outside this research community.

5th Carbon Capture FORUM entitled “CCU/CCS – Infrastructure and legal framework”, on June 15, 2023 between 9:30-12:00

Invitation, registration and program will follow promptly.

Workshop March 15, 2023, "Potentials of nature-based solutions for long-term carbon storage"

The program foresees the following inputs
9:00 Check-in
9:10 am Introduction to the topic by Bernhard WINDSPERGER | IIÖ | BioBASE

  • Tobias STERN | Uni Graz - CO2 storage in durable wood products
  • Tobias PRÖLL | BOKU - Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS)
  • Elisabeth WOPIENKA | Best Research - CO2 sequestration by pyrolysis
  • Tudor DOBRA | IBO - Evaluation of carbon sequestration using dynamic LCA

10:15 Discussion
10:45 Summary and further appointments

11:00 a.m. End

If interested in attending, please register at 4. Carbon Capture FORUM - CCCA registration portal.
This forum will be held in exchange with the project "BIG BIO"


  • Exchange meeting 25 January 2023 with Cryril BRUNNER - ETH Zurich

He is currently working in the Climate Physics group of Prof. Dr. Reto Knutti, where Cyril is the scientific project leader of the SPEED2ZERO project. In SPEED2ZERO, toolboxes, action plans and technologies are developed to enable a sustainable transformation in Switzerland. A transformation that meets international and national climate goals, in which a resilient energy supply is ensured and in which biodiversity can regain its richness. It is central that SPEED2ZERO has a direct benefit for Switzerland.

In addition, Cyril is involved in research on carbon dioxide removal (CDR/GGR), what is needed to address human-induced climate change, and what emissions will be difficult to avoid under net zero emissions (specifically methane, nitrous oxide, hydrogen, refrigerants, and SF6).

As part of carbon dioxide removal research, he is investigating all land-based approaches to removing CO2 and other greenhouse gases from the atmosphere: enhanced silicate rock weathering, direct air capture and storage (abbreviated DACS, also DACCS), methane removal, nitrous oxide removal, carbon storage in long-lived products (wood, plastics), and biomass carbon removal and storage (BiCRS), for example. e.g., in improved forest management, soil carbon sequestration (SCS), waste incineration plants, cement production with CCS, woodor biomass power plants with CCS, or in the production and storage of biochar, pyrolysis oils, and other pyrolysis products.

In his latest project, he investigated the potential of carbon dioxide removal for Switzerland to support the political and societal debate on Switzerland's net-zero target with scientifically sound statements and quantitative estimates that can be used, for example, for climate strategies. The project was supported by more than 35 research partners from ETH Zurich, EPFL, WSL, PSI, EMPA, ZHAW and OST.­

  • Workshop 15 Dec 2022 "CCU and CCS in climate accounting"

The CCCA together with BioBASE GmbH and the Institute for Industrial Ecology continued the Carbon Capture Forum (online) on 15 Dec 2022 with the topic "CCU and CCS in climate accounting" to present and discuss the current situation of the accounting rules on the different levels. National climate accounting, the inclusion of these two technologies in emissions trading and, in the discussion, the operational level of climate accounting were considered.

This revealed significant differences in the treatment of the two technologies specifically with respect to the "permanent sequestration" of CO2 after capture. For the ETS system, this is essential for accounting for capture at the emitting facility, whereas for national accounting, it is the ultimate release of CO2 and its location that is decisive. Thus, CCS in particular can be taken into account for emissions trading at the plant level, CCU systems only if the permanence of keeping the CO2 out of the atmosphere can be shown with certainty. This thus corresponds to the idea of producer responsibility in the broadest sense, in that one is responsible for the products emitted, in this case CO2. This could result in increased motivation for manufacturers to establish and use recycling systems. For national climate accounting, on the other hand, the temporary fixation of CO2 in products can also be taken into account, since the ultimate release of the emission is relevant here. For the climate accounting of companies according to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) or for environmental product declarations ofproducts (EPD or PEF), according to the guideline LCA4CCU of the EU, analogous to the ETS system, the emission also seems to remain with the emitter in the case of CCU, but the CO2 is then calculated negatively there when it is passed on to a processing company.

Overall, advantages of CCS systems over CCU were shown in the treatment in climate accounting, but this is not yet reflected in higher acceptance. For CCU, the incentives for their implementation and thus for the use of CO2 as a raw material could be lost if they are not taken into account at the operational level. In any case, however, from estimative overall balances of emissions and usable quantities, increased application of systems with permanent capture of CO2 seems inevitable. In any case, direct capture of CO2 from the atmosphere was seen as inefficient because of the great expense involved, given the low

Below are questions asked during the presentations in the chat and during the discussion (no guarantee of completeness):

  • What conditions must be met for CO2 to be classified as CO2 "permanently chemically bound..."

Under what conditions the CO2 is "permanently chemically bound..." will only be defined in a delegated or implementing act of the EU ETS Directive. Time horizon, "normal use", etc.

  • Please clarify again regarding the delineation of carbon removals from emissions trading. Do I understand correctly that biogenic emissions (sustainable biogenic emissions in the future) from industrial activities are not covered by emissions trading and can therefore fall within the scope of carbon removals?

The biomass must have been classified as sustainable, then 0 can be entered as emissions.

  • My last reading is that geological storage of CO2 is not allowed in Ö. Is this still correct?

Yes, in AT there is a CCS ban outside a research framework of 100,000 tons. Law would have to be evaluated again in 2023.

  • How is CO2 storage in mineral building materials evaluated with regard to inventory?

There are countries that want to take a closer look. But is not yet considered in any inventory to allow consistent comparability between countries. Is not currently considered in the guidelines.

  • But why is this taken into account for melamine in Austria?

Because it is actually just a transfer of emissions to the EOL. The binding of CO2 cement is not an expense for the plant. If something would be bound in the process, this would be considered in the inventory, but it needs strong studies as proof to be able to
defend this approach in Austria in the reviews.

  • Due to the various regulations, there is an ever increasing obligation to recycle plastics. If polyolefins (plastics) are kept in a (carbon) cycle through targeted recycling, is this also considered to be permanently bound?

Emissions are only recorded during incineration, not in the cycle.

  • How is interim storage assessed?

For the inventory, it is only interesting when the C flow continues or when it ends, i.e. when the emission occurs. Only sources in Austria are accounted for, emissions abroad through Austrian exports are not considered in the inventory. For CO2 intermediate storage (pipelines, storage tank, ship transport) the ETS rules are to be applied. In one year there will be new information about this.

  • Approximately when can we expect the finalization of the rules and regulations for the treatment of e-Fuels?

Drafts on hydrogen will be issued in the next few months. For CO2-based fuels it will take at least another year.

  • How is it to be evaluated with regard to the sustainability criteria if biomass is imported from abroad (USA; Eastern Europe) and then BECCS is operated?

The NDCS have to be registered at the place of biomass production, but each country has a large degree of freedom. Forests will be considered in the USA, for example. In the global south rather less. More economic consideration: Sustainability criteria must be fulfilled, then the emissions can be evaluated as 0. A negative emission is only possible via carbon removals.

  • What about corporate balance sheets? Assumption CCU (fuel or short term storage) --> is it only a balance sheet shift of scope 1 emission (CO2, which we capture and convert) to scope 3 (we sell the captured, converted CO2, which is then released again)?

Good question, no one could answer clearly. Due to the shift to scope 3, many companies fear a loss of shareholders. Accordingly, the willingness to innovate in this respect is diminished.

The following are points from the general discussion:
Preference for DAC to be reconsidered as very energy inefficient due to low CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Maintaining cycles more reasonable.

Short-lived CCU products are not counted as emissions (e.g. plastics) or only when burned. The balance of Ö can be improved by appropriate exports.

The reason why CCS and CCU are treated differently is that CCU is still quite linear.

The political requirement is: there should be no CO2 emissions in the post-treatment of CCU products.

From the ETS point of view, CO2 capture for the production of plastics would not be deducted from the emissions of the ETS operation if a release is to be assumed afterwards - i.e. it would then still be counted as an emission. This therefore results in an extension of producer responsibility, which is intended to encourage the CO2 cycle to be closed.

Market advantages will arise in the near future due to the geographical location with better possibilities for CCS (e.g. at the North Sea). Austria would then probably be in a rather bad position.

As further steps, it was invited to discuss the three topics mentioned: Biomass, Negative Emissions, Nature Based Solutions in the context of CCU and CCS, to register further focal points for discussion. Two to three workshops on this are planned in 2023 to further anchor this so important topic CCU and CCS and to present the current situation.


  • Workshop Sept. 15, 2022 "Community Building"

The goal of the event was to highlight the breadth of research as well as research gaps and to come to a better alignment within researchers. The topic of CO2 accounting of CCU and CCS also plays a role here, as well as bio-methane deployment.